Tag Archives: reference


References Cited

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[18] NetZero // Urban Agriculture, “Weather Damage,” 27 06 2018. [Online]. Available: https://hq.net0ag.com/weather-damage/.
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[20] C. Kubota, “Supporting Letter – Chieri Kubota,” [Online]. Available: https://hq.net0ag.com/supporting-letter-chieri-kubota/.
[21] J. Warner, “Tiny Microgreens Packed With Nutrients,” WebMD, 31 08 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.webmd.com/diet/news/20120831/tiny-microgreens-packed-nutrients#1. [Accessed 25 06 2018].
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[23] NetZero // Urban Agriculture, “Light Coverage,” [Online]. Available: https://hq.net0ag.com/light-coverage/.
[24] NetZero // Urban Agriculture, “Microgreens – Market Rate,” [Online]. Available: https://hq.net0ag.com/microgreens-market-rate/.
[25] J. Nelson and B. Bugbee, “Economic Analysis of Greenhouse Lighting: Light Emitting Diodes vs. High Intensity Discharge Fixtures,” PLoS ONE, 06 06 2014. [Online]. Available: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0099010.
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[31] D. Craig and E. Runkle, “A Moderate to High Red to Far-red Light Ratio from Light-emitting Diodes Controls Flowering of Short-day Plants,” JASHS May 2013 vol. 138 no. 3 167-172, 05 2013. [Online]. Available: http://journal.ashspublications.org/content/138/3/167.full.
[32] Z.-C. Yang, C. Kubota, P.-L. Chia and M. Kacira, “Effect of end-of-day far-red light from a movable LED fixture on squash rootstock hypocotyl elongation,” Elsevier Scientia Horticulturae Volume 136, 1 March 2012, Pages 81-86, 01 03 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304423811006698?via%3Dihub.
[33] G. Massa, H.-H. Kim, R. Wheeler and C. Mitchell, “Plant Productivity in Response to LED Lighting,” HortScience December 2008 vol. 43 no. 7 1951-1956, 12 2008. [Online]. Available: http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/43/7/1951.full.
[34] Z. Xiao, G. Lester, Y. Luo and Q. Wang, “Assessment of Vitamin and Carotenoid Concentrations of Emerging Food Products: Edible Microgreens,” American Chemical Society Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2012, 60, 7644−7651, 18 07 2012. [Online]. Available: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/download/59409/PDF.
[35] A. Berezow, “UV Light Adds Flavor To Out-Of-Season Greenhouse Tomatoes,” American Council on Science and Health, 19 09 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.acsh.org/news/2016/09/19/uv-light-adds-flavor-out-season-greenhouse-tomatoes-10185.
[36] M. Dzakovich, M. Ferruzzi and C. Mitchell, “Manipulating Sensory and Phytochemical Profiles of Greenhouse Tomatoes Using Environmentally Relevant Doses of Ultraviolet Radiation,” J. Agric. Food Chem., 2016, 64 (36), pp 6801–6808, 26 08 2016. [Online]. Available: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b02983.
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[38] K. McCree, “THE ACTION SPECTRUM, ABSORPTANCE AND QUANTUM YIELD OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CROP PLANTS,” Agricultural Meteorology- Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, no. 9: 191-216., 1970.
[39] M. Schreiner, I. Mewis, S. Huyskens-Keil, M. Jansen, R. Zrenner, J. Winkler, N. O’Brien and A. Krumbein, “UV-B-Induced Secondary Plant Metabolites – Potential Benefits for Plant and Human Health,” Taylor & Francis Online – Journal Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences p 229-240, 01 05 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07352689.2012.664979.
[40] Markets and Markets, “Vertical Farming Market worth 5.80 Billion USD by 2022,” Markets and Markets, [Online]. Available: https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/vertical-farming.asp. [Accessed 25 06 2018].
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[42] C. Kubota, A. Kroggel, A. Both, J. Burr and M. Whalen, “Does supplemental lighting make sense for my crop? – empirical evaluations,” in ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1134: VIII International Symposium on Light in Horticulture, East Lansing, 2016.
[43] T. Eguchi, R. Hernandez and C. Kubota, “End-of-day far-red lighting combined with blue-rich light environment to mitigate intumescence injury of two interspecific tomato rootstocks,” in ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1134: VIII International Symposium on Light in Horticulture, East Lansing, 2016.
[44] K. Garcia and C. Kubota, “Flowering responses of North American strawberry cultivars,” in ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1156: VIII International Strawberry Symposium, Quebec City, 2017.
[45] M. Kroggel and C. Kubota, “Controlled environment strategies for tipburn management in greenhouse strawberry production,” in ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1156: VIII International Strawberry Symposium, Quebec City, 2017.
[46] T. Kozai, C. Kubota, M. Takagaki and T. Maruo, “Greenhouse environment control technologies for improving the sustainability of food production,” in ISHS Acta Horticulturae 1107: XXIX International Horticultural Congress on Horticulture: Sustaining Lives, Livelihoods and Landscapes (IHC2014): International Symposium on Innovation and New Technologies in Protected Cropping, Brisbane, 2015.
[47] C. Michell, M. Dzakovich, C. Gomez, R. Lopez, J. Burr, R. Hernandez, C. Kubota, C. Currey, Q. Meng, E. Runkle, C. Bourget, R. Morrow and A. Both, “Light-Emitting Diodes in Horticulture,” in Horticultural Reviews: Volume 43, 2015.
[48] C. Kubota, P. Chia, Z. Yang and Q. Li, “Applications of far-red light emitting diodes in plant production under controlled environments,” in Acta Horticulturae Volume 952 p 59-66, 2012.
[49] C. Kubota, “Environmental control technologies to improve greenhouse product quality,” in Acta Horticulturae Vol. 952 p 843-852, 2012.
[50] R. Hernandez and C. Kubota, “Tomato seedling growth and morphological responses to supplemental LED lighting red: Blue ratios under varied daily solar light integrals,” in Acta Horticulturae Vol. 956 p 187-194, 2012.
[51] I. Ivanova, “Farmers in America are killing themselves in staggering numbers,” CBS News – Moneywatch, 26 06 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/american-farmers-rising-suicide-rates-plummeting-incomes/.
[52] NetZero // Urban Agriculture, “COB LED Array,” 26 06 2018. [Online]. Available: https://hq.net0ag.com/cob-led-array/.
[53] NetZero // Urban Agriculture, “Vint Cerf on Sensor Feedback for Optimized Growing Potential,” [Online]. Available: https://hq.net0ag.com/vint-cerf/.
[54] NetZero // Urban Agriculture, “Quantum Wavelength Measurement,” 14 06 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.net0ag.com/blogs/post/Quantum-Wavelength-Measurement/.
[55] NetZero // Urban Agriculture, “Sales Projections,” 27 06 2018. [Online]. Available: https://hq.net0ag.com/sales-projections/.


Light Coverage

According to the manufacturer, the light source we had used in one of our prototypes has a beam spread of 115 degrees.


Although we ran the LED array at 1.4 A constant current, we are able to safely double the current to 2.8 A by keeping the case temperature under 25 degrees Celsius with our heat sink that has a large plate transfer area coupled with water cooling.

The doubling of the current doubles the amount of light from the same device, and cuts the number of lights a farmer needs in half.

With the 115 degree light spread, we are able to space our microgreens pans vertically every 7.5″ with nutrient film hydroponics, 8.5″ with coconut weave mat, and 9.5″ with Speedling floating trays.

Chieri Kubota – Video on Optimizing Plant Performance

Chieri Kubota’s video published on the SciTechReports YouTube channel on June 11, 2012 titled “Optimizing Plant Performance – Plants Spliced, LED Lights Glow, & Strawberries Bloom” https://youtu.be/Rhbo_zna9HQ addresses the need for plants to have specific colors of LED lights including far red (2:20), red (2:45), and blue (3:17) to engineer plants with superior traits. She also mentions enhancing the flavor of strawberries in a controlled environment (4:38), lack of strawberries grown in green houses in the United States as opposed to Japan (5:02), chemical fumigants to control pest and disease in crops not grown in a controlled environment (5:12), and that a strawberry crop is a good candidate for local production with better worker efficiency and production (5:44).

Vint Cerf on Sensor Feedback for Optimized Growing Potential

Vint Cerf is on the Board of Directors at National Science Foundation, and gave me permission to use his quote about my patent pending design.

“Your ability to control light spectrum remotely and under computer management supports an intriguing scenario in which sensor feedback can be used to optimize growing potential.” Vinton G. Cerf, Internet Pioneer 10/2017

I had communicated with Vint Cerf about using Internet of Things (IoT) with IP on everything along with digital signal processing for closed loop control of urban agriculture light spectrum. We had met around the turn of the millennium, and had discussed using similar technology in the audio spectrum. Bringing that technology into urban agriculture will give us unprecedented control over the daily light integral over the entire life cycle of plants.

Vint Cerf and Jim Ray

Supporting Letter – Michael Ogawa BGSU

December 3, 2017

To whom it may concern:

RE: NSF grant application entitled “Next Generation Agriculture: Mobile, Energy Efficient, High
Yield, and Cultivar Specific”

Bowling Green State University is delighted to be participating in this proposal as a subawardee through the research efforts of Professors Malcolm Forbes and Pavel Anzenbacher,
who will provide a strong R&D foundation for Net Zero Agriculture’s startup venture.

We can provide laboratory space in Overman Hall (in either Professor’s space) for initial
experiments, and if the proposal is successful we can consider further incubation space and/or
an outdoor experimental station for further expansion as this company gets off the ground.

We look forward to watching an exciting set of ideas develop to improve and expand the
capabilities of modern agricultural methods.


Michael Y. Ogawa
Vice President for Research & Economic Engagement
Bowling Green State University

pdf format SBIR Mike Ogawa letter

Supporting Letter – Richard Kouri NCSU

Jim Ray
President/CTO/ Founder
Net Zero Agriculture, Inc.

Dear Jim,

This is a letter of recommendation for your NSF grant application. This proposed approach seems both innovative and commercially viable. The use of ‘tunable’ LED lights that can match the requirements of specific cultivars is an excellent idea. The availability of these NSF funds will allow Net Zero Agriculture to understand and make use of the relationship between specific wavelengths and specific output traits. This optimization will set the stage for formatting novel urban farming systems most appropriate for a variety of commercial applications; e.g. grocery stores, restaurants, and even in-home settings. This proposed approach should prove to be an effective way to deliver key foodstuffs directly to the consumers.



Richard E. Kouri, PhD
Chief Evangelist, Center for Innovation Management Studies
Senior Fellow, Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center (BTEC), College of Engineering
Adjunct Professor, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (Plant and Molecular Biology), and College of Engineering (Biomedical Engineering)
North Carolina State University

pdf format SBIR Dick Kouri letter r1

Supporting Letter – Chieri Kubota

December 2, 2017
Dear Dr. Ruth Shuman,
I am writing this letter to support the submission of a NSF proposal ‘Next Generation Agriculture: Mobile, Energy Efficient, and Cultivar Specific’ by Jim Ray in collaboration with Dr. Malcolm Forbes. I generally support innovative technologies to improve energy‐photon conversion efficiency in horticultural lighting, as a horticulture researcher whose expertise is controlled environment agriculture. Cooling technology improvement is obviously a critical area to invest for developing highly efficient LED lighting for horticultural applications and thereby lowering the electricity costs for lighting and cooling in a crop production system.
Please let me know if you need further information.
Chieri Kubota, Professor, Ohio State University, College of Food, Agriculture, and Environmental Sciences, Department of Horticulture and Crop Science
Supporting Letter – Chieri Kubota – pdf format Letter for Jim Ray – Chieri Kubota